where字句中可以使用,betway体育app6.分组查询

本节重点:

主要内容:

1.查询语法

2.关键字的执行优先级

3.简单查询

4.单条件查询

5.where 约束

6.分组查询: group by

7.使用聚合函数查询

8.having 过滤

9.查询排序:order by

10限制查询的记录数:limit

11.使用正则表达式查询

先建数据库(文件夹)、后表(文件)带字段,后记录(内容)。

company.employee
    员工id      id                  int             
    姓名        emp_name            varchar
    性别        sex                 enum
    年龄        age                 int
    入职日期     hire_date           date
    岗位        post                varchar
    职位描述     post_comment        varchar
    薪水        salary              double
    办公室       office              int
    部门编号     depart_id           int



#创建表
create table employee(
id int not null unique auto_increment,
name varchar(20) not null,
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male', #大部分是男的
age int(3) unsigned not null default 28,
hire_date date not null,
post varchar(50),
post_comment varchar(100),
salary double(15,2),
office int, #一个部门一个屋子
depart_id int
);


#查看表结构
mysql> desc employee;
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field        | Type                  | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id           | int(11)               | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| name         | varchar(20)           | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| sex          | enum('male','female') | NO   |     | male    |                |
| age          | int(3) unsigned       | NO   |     | 28      |                |
| hire_date    | date                  | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| post         | varchar(50)           | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| post_comment | varchar(100)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| salary       | double(15,2)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| office       | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| depart_id    | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

#插入记录
#三个部门:教学,销售,运营
insert into employee(name,sex,age,hire_date,post,salary,office,depart_id) values
('egon','male',18,'20170301','老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使',7300.33,401,1), #以下是教学部
('alex','male',78,'20150302','teacher',1000000.31,401,1),
('wupeiqi','male',81,'20130305','teacher',8300,401,1),
('yuanhao','male',73,'20140701','teacher',3500,401,1),
('liwenzhou','male',28,'20121101','teacher',2100,401,1),
('jingliyang','female',18,'20110211','teacher',9000,401,1),
('jinxin','male',18,'19000301','teacher',30000,401,1),
('成龙','male',48,'20101111','teacher',10000,401,1),

('歪歪','female',48,'20150311','sale',3000.13,402,2),#以下是销售部门
('丫丫','female',38,'20101101','sale',2000.35,402,2),
('丁丁','female',18,'20110312','sale',1000.37,402,2),
('星星','female',18,'20160513','sale',3000.29,402,2),
('格格','female',28,'20170127','sale',4000.33,402,2),

('张野','male',28,'20160311','operation',10000.13,403,3), #以下是运营部门
('程咬金','male',18,'19970312','operation',20000,403,3),
('程咬银','female',18,'20130311','operation',19000,403,3),
('程咬铜','male',18,'20150411','operation',18000,403,3),
('程咬铁','female',18,'20140512','operation',17000,403,3)

一、MYSQL数据操作(增 改 删)

先创建表

  单表查询

一:查询语法:

select 字段1,字段2...  from  表名
             where  条件
             group by  field
             having   筛选
            order by field
            limit   限制条数

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#创建表
create table employee(
id int not null unique auto_increment,
name varchar(20) not null,
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male', #大部分是男的
age int(3) unsigned not null default 28,
hire_date date not null,
post varchar(50),
post_comment varchar(100),
salary double(15,2),
office int, #一个部门一个屋子
depart_id int
);


#查看表结构
mysql> desc employee;
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field        | Type                  | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id           | int(11)               | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| name         | varchar(20)           | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| sex          | enum('male','female') | NO   |     | male    |                |
| age          | int(3) unsigned       | NO   |     | 28      |                |
| hire_date    | date                  | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| post         | varchar(50)           | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| post_comment | varchar(100)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| salary       | double(15,2)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| office       | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| depart_id    | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

#插入记录
#三个部门:教学,销售,运营
insert into employee(name,sex,age,hire_date,post,salary,office,depart_id) values
('egon','male',18,'20170301','teacher',7300.33,401,1), #以下是教学部
('alex','male',78,'20150302','teacher',1000000.31,401,1),
('wupeiqi','male',81,'20130305','teacher',8300,401,1),
('yuanhao','male',73,'20140701','teacher',3500,401,1),
('liwenzhou','male',28,'20121101','teacher',2100,401,1),
('jingliyang','female',18,'20110211','teacher',9000,401,1),
('jinxin','male',18,'19000301','teacher',30000,401,1),
('成龙','male',48,'20101111','teacher',10000,401,1),

('歪歪','female',48,'20150311','sale',3000.13,402,2),#以下是销售部门
('丫丫','female',38,'20101101','sale',2000.35,402,2),
('丁丁','female',18,'20110312','sale',1000.37,402,2),
('星星','female',18,'20160513','sale',3000.29,402,2),
('格格','female',28,'20170127','sale',4000.33,402,2),

('张野','male',28,'20160311','operation',10000.13,403,3), #以下是运营部门
('程咬金','male',18,'19970312','operation',20000,403,3),
('程咬银','female',18,'20130311','operation',19000,403,3),
('程咬铜','male',18,'20150411','operation',18000,403,3),
('程咬铁','female',18,'20140512','operation',17000,403,3)
;

 

二:关键字的执行优先级(重点)

重点:关键字的优先级执行顺序
1.from
2.where
3.group by
4.having
5.select
6.distinct
7.order by
8.limit

1.找到表:from

2.拿着where指定的约束条件,去文件/表中取出一条条记录

3.将取出的一条条记录进行分组group by,如果没有group by,则整体作为一组

4.按照select后的字段得到一张新的虚拟表,如果有聚合函数,则将组内数据进行聚合

5.将4的结果过滤:having

6.查出结果:select

7.去重

8.将结果按条件排序:order by

9.限制结果的显示条数

1. 插入完整数据(顺序插入)
    语法一:
    INSERT INTO 表名(字段1,字段2,字段3…字段n) VALUES(值1,值2,值3…值n);

    语法二:
    INSERT INTO 表名 VALUES (值1,值2,值3…值n);

2. 指定字段插入数据
    语法:
    INSERT INTO 表名(字段1,字段2,字段3…) VALUES (值1,值2,值3…);

3. 插入多条记录
    语法:
    INSERT INTO 表名 VALUES
        (值1,值2,值3…值n),
        (值1,值2,值3…值n),
        (值1,值2,值3…值n);

4. 插入查询结果
    语法:
    INSERT INTO 表名(字段1,字段2,字段3…字段n) 
                    SELECT (字段1,字段2,字段3…字段n) FROM 表2
                    WHERE …;

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语法:

三:简单查询

#简单查询
    select id,name,sex,age,hire_date,post,post_comment,salary,office,depart_id 
    from employee;

    select * from employee;

    select name,salary from employee;

#避免重复DISTINCT
    select distinct post from employee;    

#通过四则运算查询
    select name, salary*12 from employee;
    select name, salary*12 as Annual_salary from employee;
    select name, salary*12 Annual_salary from employee;

#定义显示格式
   concat() 函数用于连接字符串
   select concat('姓名: ',name,'  年薪: ', salary*12)  AS Annual_salary 
   from employee;

   CONCAT_WS() 第一个参数为分隔符
   SELECT CONCAT_WS(':',name,salary*12)  AS Annual_salary 
   FROM employee;

小练习:

1 查出所有员工的名字,薪资,格式为
    <名字:egon>    <薪资:3000>
2 查出所有的岗位(去掉重复)
3 查出所有员工名字,以及他们的年薪,年薪的字段名为annual_year

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select  concat('<名字:',name,’> ' , '<薪资:',salary,'>') from employee;
select distinct depart_id from employee;
select name,salary*12 annual_salary from employee;

View Code

插入数据insert

1 1.注意:                                                                                        
2     select * from t1 where 条件 group by 分组字段                                                  
3     1.分组只能查询分组字段,要想查看其余的利用聚合函数                                                               
4     2.聚合函数的分类:count,min,max,avg,group_concat,sum等。                                           
5     3.模糊匹配:用like关键字。                                                                         
6       select * from t1 where name like '%eg%'; #%表示任意字符                                      
7       select * from t1 where name like 'd__l'; #一个下划线表示一个字符,两个下划线就表示两个字符                     
8     4.拷贝表 :create table t2 select * from t1;                                                 
9                create table t2 select * from t1 where 1=2 ;                                  

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四:where  约束

强调: where是一种约束条件,mysql会拿着where指定的条件取表中取数据,而having则是在取出数据后进行过滤。

where字句中可以使用:

  1.比较运算符: >< >= <= <> !=

  2.between 80 and 100 值在 10 到 20 之间。

  3.in (80,90,100)值是10 或 20 或 30.

  4.like 'aray%' 

     patterm 可以是 %或_,

   %表示任意字符, _表示一个字符

  5.逻辑运算符: 在多个条件直接可以使用逻辑运算符 and or not

1.单条件查询
    select name from employee where post = 'sale';

2.多条件查询
    select name,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary>10000;

3.关键字查询:between and
    select name,salary from employee where salary between 10000 and 20000;
    select name,salary from employee where sal''ary not between 10000 and 20000;

4.关键字查询:is null(判断某个字段是否为null 不能用等号们需要用is)
    select name,post_comment from employee where post_comment is null;
    select name,post_comment from employee where post_comment is not null;
    select name,post_comment from employee where post_comment ='';  #注意:''是空字符串。
    ps:
        执行
        update employee set post_comment='' where  id=2;
        再用上条查看,就会有结果了。

5.关键字查询: in    
    select name,salary from employee where salary=3000 or salary=3500 or salary=4000;
    select name,salary from employee where salary  in (3000,3500,4000);
    select name,salary from employee where salary not in (3000,3500,4000);

6.关键字查询:like
    通配符 '%'
    select * from employee where name like 'ar%';

    通配符: '_'
    select * from employee where name like 'ar__';

小练习:

1. 查看岗位是teacher的员工姓名、年龄
2. 查看岗位是teacher且年龄大于30岁的员工姓名、年龄
3. 查看岗位是teacher且薪资在9000-1000范围内的员工姓名、年龄、薪资
4. 查看岗位描述不为NULL的员工信息
5. 查看岗位是teacher且薪资是10000或9000或30000的员工姓名、年龄、薪资
6. 查看岗位是teacher且薪资不是10000或9000或30000的员工姓名、年龄、薪资
7. 查看岗位是teacher且名字是jin开头的员工姓名、年薪

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1.
select name,age from employee where post ='teacher';

2.
select name,age from employee where post='teacher' and age>30;
''
3.
select name,age,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary between 9000 adn 10000;

4.
select * from employee where post_comment is not null;

5.
select name,age,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary  in(10000,9000,30000);

6.
select name,age,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary not in(10000,9000,30000);

7.
select name,salary from empolyee where post='teacher' and name like 'jin%';

View Code

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一点小知识复习

一、单表查询的语法
   SELECT 字段1,字段2... FROM 表名
                  WHERE 条件
                  GROUP BY field
                  HAVING 筛选
                  ORDER BY field
                  LIMIT 限制条数
二、关键字的执行优先级(重点)

重点中的重点:关键字的执行优先级
from
where
group by
having
select
distinct
order by
limit

五:分组查询: group by

大前提: 可以按照任意字段分组, 但分完组后,只能查看分组的那个字段,要想取的组内的其他字段信息,需要借助函数。

单独使用 group by 关键字分组:
    select post from employee group by post;
    注意: 我们按照post字段分组,那么select 查询的字段只能是post,要获取组内的其他信息,要借助函数。

group by 关键字和 group_concat()函数一起使用。
    select post,group concat(name) from employee group by post;  #按岗位分组,并查看成员名。
    select post,group concat(name) as emp_members from employee group by post;

group ty 与聚合函数一起使用
    select post,count(id) as count from employee group by post;  #按岗位分组,并查看每个组有多少人

强调:

如果我们用unique 的字段做为 分组的依据,则每一条记录自成一组,这种分组没有意义。
多条记录之间的某个字段值相同,该字段通常用来作为分组的依据。

小练习:

1. 查询岗位名以及岗位包含的所有员工名字
2. 查询岗位名以及各岗位内包含的员工个数
3. 查询公司内男员工和女员工的个数
4. 查询岗位名以及各岗位的平均薪资
5. 查询岗位名以及各岗位的最高薪资
6. 查询岗位名以及各岗位的最低薪资
7. 查询男员工与男员工的平均薪资,女员工与女员工的平均薪资

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1.
select post,group_concat(name) from employee group by post;

2.
select post,count(id) from employee group by post;

3.
select sex,count(id) from employee group by sex;

4.
select post,avg(salary) from employee group by post;

5.
select post,max(salary) from employee group by post;

6.
select post,min(salary) from employee group by post;

7.
select sex,avg(salary) from employee group by sex;

View Code

语法:
    UPDATE 表名 SET
        字段1=值1,
        字段2=值2,
        WHERE CONDITION;

示例:
    UPDATE mysql.user SET password=password(‘123’) 
        where user=’root’ and host=’localhost’;

 

1.找到表:from

六:使用聚合函数查询

先from找到表

再用where的条件约束去表中取出记录

然后进行分组group by,没有分组则默认一组

然后进行聚合

最后select出结果

示例:
    select count(*) from employee;
    select count(*) from empoloyee where depart_id=1;
    select max(salary) from emploee;
    select min(salary) from employee;
    select avg(salary) from employee;
    select sum(salary) from employee;
    select sum(salary) from employee where depart_id=3;

更新数据update

一、查询语法

2.拿着where指定的约束条件,去文件/表中取出一条条记录

七:having 过滤

having 与 where 在语法上是一样的。

select * from employee where salary > 10000;
select * from employee having salary > 10000;

不同点:

1.执行优先级:从高到低。
    where > group by > 聚合函数 > having 

2. where 是一个约束条件,是在结果返回之前起作用的。(先找到表,按where的约束条件,取出数据)
    having 是一个过滤条件,是在结果返回以后起作用的。(取出数据后,在group by 分组,如果没有group by 则所有的记录为一组,在执行聚合函数,然后使用having 对聚合的结果进行过滤),在having中可以用聚合函数,where则不能。

3.having 可以放到 group by 之后,而 where 只能放到group by 之前。

4.在查询过程中聚合语句有:
    (sum,min,max,avg,count) 要比having 子句优先执行,
    而where 子句在查询过程中执行优先级高于聚合语句。

验证不同之处:

#验证之前再次强调:执行优先级从高到低:where > group by > 聚合函数 > having 
select count(id) from employee where salary > 10000; #正确,分析:where先执行,后执行聚合count(id),然后select出结果
select count(id) from employee having salary > 10000;#错误,分析:先执行聚合count(id),后执行having过滤,无法对id进行salary>10000的过滤

#以上两条sql的顺序是
1:找到表employee--->用where过滤---->没有分组则默认一组执行聚合count(id)--->select执行查看组内id数目
2:找到表employee--->没有分组则默认一组执行聚合count(id)---->having 基于上一步聚合的结果(此时只有count(id)字段了)进行salary>10000的过滤,很明显,根本无法获取到salary字段

其他需要注意的问题:

select post,group_concat(name) from employee group by post having salary > 10000;#错误,分组后无法直接取到salary字段
select post,group_concat(name) from employee group by post having avg(salary) > 10000;

小练习:

1. 查询各岗位内包含的员工个数小于2的岗位名、岗位内包含员工名字、个数
3. 查询各岗位平均薪资大于10000的岗位名、平均工资
4. 查询各岗位平均薪资大于10000且小于20000的岗位名、平均工资

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1.
select post,group_concat(name),count(id) from empoloyee group by post having count(id) < 2;

2.
select post,avg(salary)  from employee group by post having avg(salary) > 10000;

3.
select post,avg(salary) from employee group by post having avg(salary) > 10000 and avg(salary) < 20000;

View Code

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SELECT 字段1,字段2... FROM 表名
                  WHERE 条件
                  GROUP BY field
                  HAVING 筛选
                  ORDER BY field
                  LIMIT 限制条数

3.将取出的一条条记录进行分组group by,如果没有group by,则整体作为一组

八:查询排序: order by

按单列排序:
    select * from employee oeder by salary;
    select * from employee order by asc;
    select * from employee order by desc;

按多列排序:先按age排序,如果年纪相同,则按照薪资排序
    select * from employee order by age,salary desc;

小练习:

1. 查询所有员工信息,先按照age升序排序,如果age相同则按照hire_date降序排序
2. 查询各岗位平均薪资大于10000的岗位名、平均工资,结果按平均薪资升序排列
3. 查询各岗位平均薪资大于10000的岗位名、平均工资,结果按平均薪资降序排列

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1.
select * from employee order by age asc,hire_data desc;

2.
select post,avg(salary) from employee group by post having avg(salary) > 10000 order by avg(salary) asc;

3.
select post,avg(salary) from employee group by post having avg(salary) >10000
order bu avg(salary) desc;

View Code

语法:
    DELETE FROM 表名 
        WHERE CONITION;

示例:
    DELETE FROM mysql.user 
        WHERE password=’’;

练习:
    更新MySQL root用户密码为mysql123
    删除除从本地登录的root用户以外的所有用户

二、简单查询

4.将分组的结果进行having过滤

九: 限制查询的记录数: limit

示例:
    SELECT * FROM employee ORDER BY salary DESC 
        LIMIT 3;                    #默认初始位置为0 

    SELECT * FROM employee ORDER BY salary DESC
        LIMIT 0,5; #从第0开始,即先查询出第一条,然后包含这一条在内往后查5条

    SELECT * FROM employee ORDER BY salary DESC
        LIMIT 5,5; #从第5开始,即先查询出第6条,然后包含这一条在内往后查5条

小练习:

1. 分页显示,每页5条

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#题目1
mysql> select * from employee ORDER BY age asc,hire_date desc;

#题目2
mysql> select post,avg(salary) from employee group by post having avg(salary) > 10000 order by avg(salary) asc;
+-----------+---------------+
| post      | avg(salary)   |
+-----------+---------------+
| operation |  16800.026000 |
| teacher   | 151842.901429 |
+-----------+---------------+

#题目3
mysql> select post,avg(salary) from employee group by post having avg(salary) > 10000 order by avg(salary) desc;
+-----------+---------------+
| post      | avg(salary)   |
+-----------+---------------+
| teacher   | 151842.901429 |
| operation |  16800.026000 |
+-----------+---------------+

回到顶部
十 限制查询的记录数:LIMIT

示例:
    SELECT * FROM employee ORDER BY salary DESC 
        LIMIT 3;                    #默认初始位置为0 

    SELECT * FROM employee ORDER BY salary DESC
        LIMIT 0,5; #从第0开始,即先查询出第一条,然后包含这一条在内往后查5条

    SELECT * FROM employee ORDER BY salary DESC
        LIMIT 5,5; #从第5开始,即先查询出第6条,然后包含这一条在内往后查5条

小练习:
1. 分页显示,每页5条


mysql> select * from  employee limit 0,5;
+----+-----------+------+-----+------------+-----------------------------------------+--------------+------------+--------+-----------+
| id | name      | sex  | age | hire_date  | post                                    | post_comment | salary     | office | depart_id |
+----+-----------+------+-----+------------+-----------------------------------------+--------------+------------+--------+-----------+
|  1 | egon      | male |  18 | 2017-03-01 | 老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使              | NULL         |    7300.33 |    401 |         1 |
|  2 | alex      | male |  78 | 2015-03-02 | teacher                                 |              | 1000000.31 |    401 |         1 |
|  3 | wupeiqi   | male |  81 | 2013-03-05 | teacher                                 | NULL         |    8300.00 |    401 |         1 |
|  4 | yuanhao   | male |  73 | 2014-07-01 | teacher                                 | NULL         |    3500.00 |    401 |         1 |
|  5 | liwenzhou | male |  28 | 2012-11-01 | teacher                                 | NULL         |    2100.00 |    401 |         1 |
+----+-----------+------+-----+------------+-----------------------------------------+--------------+------------+--------+-----------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from  employee limit 5,5;
+----+------------+--------+-----+------------+---------+--------------+----------+--------+-----------+
| id | name       | sex    | age | hire_date  | post    | post_comment | salary   | office | depart_id |
+----+------------+--------+-----+------------+---------+--------------+----------+--------+-----------+
|  6 | jingliyang | female |  18 | 2011-02-11 | teacher | NULL         |  9000.00 |    401 |         1 |
|  7 | jinxin     | male   |  18 | 1900-03-01 | teacher | NULL         | 30000.00 |    401 |         1 |
|  8 | 成龙       | male   |  48 | 2010-11-11 | teacher | NULL         | 10000.00 |    401 |         1 |
|  9 | 歪歪       | female |  48 | 2015-03-11 | sale    | NULL         |  3000.13 |    402 |         2 |
| 10 | 丫丫       | female |  38 | 2010-11-01 | sale    | NULL         |  2000.35 |    402 |         2 |
+----+------------+--------+-----+------------+---------+--------------+----------+--------+-----------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from  employee limit 10,5;
+----+-----------+--------+-----+------------+-----------+--------------+----------+--------+-----------+
| id | name      | sex    | age | hire_date  | post      | post_comment | salary   | office | depart_id |
+----+-----------+--------+-----+------------+-----------+--------------+----------+--------+-----------+
| 11 | 丁丁      | female |  18 | 2011-03-12 | sale      | NULL         |  1000.37 |    402 |         2 |
| 12 | 星星      | female |  18 | 2016-05-13 | sale      | NULL         |  3000.29 |    402 |         2 |
| 13 | 格格      | female |  28 | 2017-01-27 | sale      | NULL         |  4000.33 |    402 |         2 |
| 14 | 张野      | male   |  28 | 2016-03-11 | operation | NULL         | 10000.13 |    403 |         3 |
| 15 | 程咬金    | male   |  18 | 1997-03-12 | operation | NULL         | 20000.00 |    403 |         3 |
+----+-----------+--------+-----+------------+-----------+--------------+----------+--------+-----------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

View Code

删除数据delete

#简单查询
    SELECT id,name,sex,age,hire_date,post,post_comment,salary,office,depart_id 
    FROM employee;

    SELECT * FROM employee;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee;

#避免重复DISTINCT
    SELECT DISTINCT post FROM employee;    

#通过四则运算查询
    SELECT name, salary*12 FROM employee;
    SELECT name, salary*12 AS Annual_salary FROM employee;
    SELECT name, salary*12 Annual_salary FROM employee;

#定义显示格式
   CONCAT() 函数用于连接字符串
   SELECT CONCAT('姓名: ',name,'  年薪: ', salary*12)  AS Annual_salary 
   FROM employee;

   CONCAT_WS() 第一个参数为分隔符
   SELECT CONCAT_WS(':',name,salary*12)  AS Annual_salary 
   FROM employee;

5.执行select

十:使用正则表达式查询

select * from employee where name regexp '^ale';

select * from employee where name regexp 'on$';

select * from employee where name regexp 'm{2}';

小结:对字符串匹配的方式
WHERE name = 'egon';
WHERE name LIKE 'yua%';
WHERE name REGEXP 'on$';

小练习:

查看所有员工中名字是jin开头,n或者g结果的员工信息

select * from employee where name regexp '^jin.*[gn]$';

  

 

 

小练习:

6.去重

二、查询数据select

1 查出所有员工的名字,薪资,格式为
    <名字:egon>    <薪资:3000>
select concat('<名字:',name,'> '  ,'<薪资:',salary,'>' ) from employee;
2 查出所有的岗位(去掉重复)
select distinct depart_id from employee;
3 查出所有员工名字,以及他们的年薪,年薪的字段名为年薪
select name,salary*12 年薪 from employee;

7.将结果按条件排序:order by

 

 

8.限制结果的显示条数

"""单表查询"""

三、where约束

 

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where字句中可以使用:

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company.employee
    员工id      id                  int             
    姓名        emp_name            varchar
    性别        sex                 enum
    年龄        age                 int
    入职日期     hire_date           date
    岗位        post                varchar
    职位描述     post_comment        varchar
    薪水        salary              double
    办公室       office              int
    部门编号     depart_id           int



#创建表
create table employee(
id int not null unique auto_increment,
name varchar(20) not null,
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male', #大部分是男的
age int(3) unsigned not null default 28,
hire_date date not null,
post varchar(50),
post_comment varchar(100),
salary double(15,2),
office int, #一个部门一个屋子
depart_id int
);


#查看表结构
mysql> desc employee;
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field        | Type                  | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id           | int(11)               | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| name         | varchar(20)           | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| sex          | enum('male','female') | NO   |     | male    |                |
| age          | int(3) unsigned       | NO   |     | 28      |                |
| hire_date    | date                  | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| post         | varchar(50)           | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| post_comment | varchar(100)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| salary       | double(15,2)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| office       | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| depart_id    | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

#插入记录
#三个部门:教学,销售,运营
insert into employee(name,sex,age,hire_date,post,salary,office,depart_id) values
('egon','male',18,'20170301','老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使',7300.33,401,1), #以下是教学部
('alex','male',78,'20150302','teacher',1000000.31,401,1),
('wupeiqi','male',81,'20130305','teacher',8300,401,1),
('yuanhao','male',73,'20140701','teacher',3500,401,1),
('liwenzhou','male',28,'20121101','teacher',2100,401,1),
('jingliyang','female',18,'20110211','teacher',9000,401,1),
('jinxin','male',18,'19000301','teacher',30000,401,1),
('成龙','male',48,'20101111','teacher',10000,401,1),

('歪歪','female',48,'20150311','sale',3000.13,402,2),#以下是销售部门
('丫丫','female',38,'20101101','sale',2000.35,402,2),
('丁丁','female',18,'20110312','sale',1000.37,402,2),
('星星','female',18,'20160513','sale',3000.29,402,2),
('格格','female',28,'20170127','sale',4000.33,402,2),

('张野','male',28,'20160311','operation',10000.13,403,3), #以下是运营部门
('程咬金','male',18,'19970312','operation',20000,403,3),
('程咬银','female',18,'20130311','operation',19000,403,3),
('程咬铜','male',18,'20150411','operation',18000,403,3),
('程咬铁','female',18,'20140512','operation',17000,403,3)
;
  1. 比较运算符:> < >= <= <> !=
  2. between 80 and 100 值在10到20之间
  3. in(80,90,100) 值是80或90或100
  4. like 'eg%'
        可以是%或_,
        %表示任意多字符
        _表示一个字符

 

例 表

 like 'e__n' :
5. 逻辑运算符:在多个条件直接可以使用逻辑运算符 and or not 

创建公司员工表,表的字段和数据类型

1、查询语法

#1:单条件查询
    SELECT name FROM employee
        WHERE post='sale';

#2:多条件查询
    SELECT name,salary FROM employee
        WHERE post='teacher' AND salary>10000;

#3:关键字BETWEEN AND
    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary BETWEEN 10000 AND 20000;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary NOT BETWEEN 10000 AND 20000;

#4:关键字IS NULL(判断某个字段是否为NULL不能用等号,需要用IS)
    SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee 
        WHERE post_comment IS NULL;

    SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee 
        WHERE post_comment IS NOT NULL;

    SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee 
        WHERE post_comment=''; 注意''是空字符串,不是null
    ps:
        执行
        update employee set post_comment='' where id=2;
        再用上条查看,就会有结果了

#5:关键字IN集合查询
    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary=3000 OR salary=3500 OR salary=4000 OR salary=9000 ;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary IN (3000,3500,4000,9000) ;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary NOT IN (3000,3500,4000,9000) ;

#6:关键字LIKE模糊查询
    通配符’%’
    SELECT * FROM employee 
            WHERE name LIKE 'eg%';

    通配符’_’
    SELECT * FROM employee 
            WHERE name LIKE 'al__';

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SELECT 字段1,字段2... FROM 表名
                  WHERE 条件
                  GROUP BY field
                  HAVING 筛选
                  ORDER BY field
                  LIMIT 限制条数

四、having过滤

company.employee
    员工id          id                          int                  
    姓名            name                        varchar                                                             
    性别            sex                         enum                                                                  
    年龄            age                         int
    入职日期         hire_date                   date
    岗位            post                        varchar
    职位描述         post_comment             varchar
    薪水            salary                    double
    办公室           office                     int
    部门编号         depart_id                   int

2、关键字的执行优先级(重点)

having和where语法上是一样的。

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select * from employee where id>15;    
select * from employee having id>15;   

 

重点中的重点:关键字的执行优先级
from
where
group by
having
select
distinct
order by
limit

 

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View Code

但是having和where不一样的地方在于以下几点!!!

#创建表,设置字段的约束条件
create table employee(
    id int primary key auto_increment,
    name  varchar(20) not null,
    sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male', #大部分是男的
    age int(3) unsigned not null default 28,
    hire_date date not null,
    post varchar(50),
    post_comment varchar(100),
    salary  double(15,2),
    office int,#一个部门一个屋
    depart_id int
);
# 查看表结构
mysql> desc employee;
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field                | Type                              | Null | Key     | Default | Extra          |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id                      | int(11)                            | NO   | PRI     | NULL    | auto_increment |
| emp_name             | varchar(20)                   | NO   |             | NULL    |                |
| sex                  | enum('male','female')   | NO   |             | male    |                |
| age                  | int(3) unsigned               | NO   |             | 28         |                |
| hire_date        | date                              | NO   |             | NULL    |                |
| post                 | varchar(50)                   | YES  |         | NULL    |                |
| post_comment     | varchar(100)                  | YES  |         | NULL    |                |
| salart               | double(15,2)                  | YES  |         | NULL    |                |
| office              | int(11)                           | YES  |         | NULL    |                |
| depart_id        | int(11)                           | YES  |         | NULL    |                |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
10 rows in set (0.08 sec)

#插入记录
#三个部门:教学,销售,运营
insert into employee(name ,sex,age,hire_date,post,salary,office,depart_id) values
('egon','male',18,'20170301','老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使',7300.33,401,1), #以下是教学部
('alex','male',78,'20150302','teacher',1000000.31,401,1),
('wupeiqi','male',81,'20130305','teacher',8300,401,1),
('yuanhao','male',73,'20140701','teacher',3500,401,1),
('liwenzhou','male',28,'20121101','teacher',2100,401,1),
('jingliyang','female',18,'20110211','teacher',9000,401,1),
('jinxin','male',18,'19000301','teacher',30000,401,1),
('xiaomage','male',48,'20101111','teacher',10000,401,1),

('歪歪','female',48,'20150311','sale',3000.13,402,2),#以下是销售部门
('丫丫','female',38,'20101101','sale',2000.35,402,2),
('丁丁','female',18,'20110312','sale',1000.37,402,2),
('星星','female',18,'20160513','sale',3000.29,402,2),
('格格','female',28,'20170127','sale',4000.33,402,2),

('张野','male',28,'20160311','operation',10000.13,403,3), #以下是运营部门
('程咬金','male',18,'19970312','operation',20000,403,3),
('程咬银','female',18,'20130311','operation',19000,403,3),
('程咬铜','male',18,'20150411','operation',18000,403,3),
('程咬铁','female',18,'20140512','operation',17000,403,3)
;

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#!!!执行优先级从高到低:where > group by > 聚合函数 > having >order by

1.where和having的区别                                                                                
     1. Where 是一个约束声明,使用Where约束来自数据库的数据,Where是在结果返回之前起作用的                                        
     (先找到表,按照where的约束条件,从表(文件)中取出数据),Where中不能使用聚合函数                                              
     2.Having是一个过滤声明,是在查询返回结果集以后对查询结果进行的过滤操作                                                     
     (先找到表,按照where的约束条件,从表(文件)中取出数据,然后group by分组,                                                
      如果没有group by则所有记录整体为一组,然后执行聚合函数,然后使用having对聚合的结果进行过滤),                                     
      在Having中可以使用聚合函数。                                                                          
     3.where的优先级比having的优先级高                                                                     
     4.having可以放到group by之后,而where只能放到group by 之前。                                               

创建员工表,并插入记录

1.找到表:from

2.拿着where指定的约束条件,去文件/表中取出一条条记录

3.将取出的一条条记录进行分组group by,如果没有group by,则整体作为一组

4.按照select后的字段得到一张新的虚拟表,如果有聚合函数,则将组内数据进行聚合

5.将4的结果过滤:having,如果有聚合函数也是先执行聚合再having过滤

6.查出结果:select

7.去重

8.将结果按条件排序:order by

9.限制结果的显示条数

验证不同之处:

 

详解

1.查看员工的id>15的有多少个
select count(id) from employee where id>15;#正确,分析:where先执行,后执行聚合count(id),
                                            然后select出结果
select count(id) from employee having id>15; #报错,分析:先执行聚合count(id),后执行having过滤,
                                            #无法对id进行id>15的过滤
#以上两条sql的顺序是
1:找到表employee--->用where过滤---->没有分组则默认一组执行聚合count(id)--->select执行查看组内id数目
2:找到表employee--->没有分组则默认一组执行聚合count(id)---->having 基于上一步聚合的结果(此时只有count(id)字段了)
进行id>15的过滤,很明显,根本无法获取到id字段

(1)where 约束 

 

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3、简单查询

1 ------having-----------
2 select depart_id,count(id) from employee group by depart_id;
3 select depart_id,count(id) from employee group by depart_id having depart_id = 3;
4 select depart_id,count(id) from employee group by depart_id having count(id)>7;
5 select max(salary) 最大工资 from employee where id>2 group by depart_id having count(id)>3;
6 select * from employee where id>7; #查看所有id>7的员工信息
where子句中可以使用
1.比较运算符:>、<、>=、<=、<>、!=
2.between 80 and 100 :值在80到100之间
3.in(80,90,100)值是10或20或30
4.like 'xiaomagepattern': pattern可以是%或者_。%小时任意多字符,_表示一个字符
5.逻辑运算符:在多个条件直接可以使用逻辑运算符 and or not

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having 举例

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#简单查询
    SELECT id,name,sex,age,hire_date,post,post_comment,salary,office,depart_id 
    FROM employee;

    SELECT * FROM employee;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee;

#避免重复DISTINCT
    SELECT DISTINCT post FROM employee;    

#通过四则运算查询
    SELECT name, salary*12 FROM employee;
    SELECT name, salary*12 AS Annual_salary FROM employee;
    SELECT name, salary*12 Annual_salary FROM employee;

#定义显示格式
   CONCAT() 函数用于连接字符串
   SELECT CONCAT('姓名: ',name,'  年薪: ', salary*12)  AS Annual_salary 
   FROM employee;

   CONCAT_WS() 第一个参数为分隔符
   SELECT CONCAT_WS(':',name,salary*12)  AS Annual_salary 
   FROM employee;

小练习:

 

View Code

1. 查询各岗位内包含的员工个数小于2的岗位名、岗位内包含员工名字、个数
select post,group_concat(name) 员工姓名,count(id) 个数 from employee group by post having count(id)<2;
2. 查询各岗位平均薪资大于10000的岗位名、平均工资
select post,avg(salary) from employee group by post having avg(salary)>10000;
3. 查询各岗位平均薪资大于10000且小于20000的岗位名、平均工资
select post,avg(salary)  from employee group by post having  avg(salary) between 10000 and 20000;

验证结果:

 

五、分组查询 group by

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4、where约束

大前提:可以按照任意字段分组,但分完组后,只能查看分组的那个字段,要想取的组内的其他字段信息,需要借助函数

#1 :单条件查询
mysql> select id,emp_name from employee where id > 5;
+----+------------+
| id | emp_name   |
+----+------------+
|  6 | jingliyang |
|  7 | jinxin     |
|  8 | xiaomage   |
|  9 | 歪歪       |
| 10 | 丫丫       |
| 11 | 丁丁       |
| 12 | 星星       |
| 13 | 格格       |
| 14 | 张野       |
| 15 | 程咬金     |
| 16 | 程咬银     |
| 17 | 程咬铜     |
| 18 | 程咬铁     |

#2 多条件查询
mysql> select emp_name from employee where post='teacher' and salary>10000;
+----------+
| emp_name |
+----------+
| alex         |
| jinxin     |
+----------+

#3.关键字BETWEEN AND
 SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary BETWEEN 10000 AND 20000;

 SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary NOT BETWEEN 10000 AND 20000;

#注意''是空字符串,不是null
 SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee WHERE post_comment='';
 ps:
        执行
        update employee set post_comment='' where id=2;
        再用上条查看,就会有结果了
#5:关键字IN集合查询
mysql>  SELECT name,salary FROM employee WHERE salary=3000 OR salary=3500 OR salary=4000 OR salary=9000 ;
+------------+---------+
| name       | salary  |
+------------+---------+
| yuanhao    | 3500.00 |
| jingliyang | 9000.00 |
+------------+---------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>  SELECT name,salary FROM employee  WHERE salary IN (3000,3500,4000,9000) ;
+------------+---------+
| name       | salary  |
+------------+---------+
| yuanhao    | 3500.00 |
| jingliyang | 9000.00 |
+------------+---------+
mysql>  SELECT name,salary FROM employee  WHERE salary NOT IN (3000,3500,4000,9000) ;
+-----------+------------+
| name      | salary     |
+-----------+------------+
| egon      |    7300.33 |
| alex      | 1000000.31 |
| wupeiqi   |    8300.00 |
| liwenzhou |    2100.00 |
| jinxin    |   30000.00 |
| xiaomage  |   10000.00 |
| 歪歪      |    3000.13 |
| 丫丫      |    2000.35 |
| 丁丁      |    1000.37 |
| 星星      |    3000.29 |
| 格格      |    4000.33 |
| 张野      |   10000.13 |
| 程咬金    |   20000.00 |
| 程咬银    |   19000.00 |
| 程咬铜    |   18000.00 |
| 程咬铁    |   17000.00 |
+-----------+------------+
16 rows in set (0.00 sec)

#6:关键字LIKE模糊查询
通配符’%’
mysql> SELECT * FROM employee WHERE name LIKE 'jin%';
+----+------------+--------+-----+------------+---------+--------------+----------+--------+-----------+
| id | name       | sex    | age | hire_date  | post    | post_comment | salary   | office | depart_id |
+----+------------+--------+-----+------------+---------+--------------+----------+--------+-----------+
|  6 | jingliyang | female |  18 | 2011-02-11 | teacher | NULL         |  9000.00 |    401 |         1 |
|  7 | jinxin     | male   |  18 | 1900-03-01 | teacher | NULL         | 30000.00 |    401 |         1 |
+----+------------+--------+-----+------------+---------+--------------+----------+--------+-----------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)


通配符'_'

mysql> SELECT  age FROM employee WHERE name LIKE 'ale_';
+-----+
| age |
+-----+
|  78 |
+-----+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

练习:
1. 查看岗位是teacher的员工姓名、年龄
2. 查看岗位是teacher且年龄大于30岁的员工姓名、年龄
3. 查看岗位是teacher且薪资在9000-1000范围内的员工姓名、年龄、薪资
4. 查看岗位描述不为NULL的员工信息
5. 查看岗位是teacher且薪资是10000或9000或30000的员工姓名、年龄、薪资
6. 查看岗位是teacher且薪资不是10000或9000或30000的员工姓名、年龄、薪资
7. 查看岗位是teacher且名字是jin开头的员工姓名、年薪

#对应的sql语句
select name,age from employee where post = 'teacher';
select name,age from employee where post='teacher' and age > 30; 
select name,age,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary between 9000 and 10000;
select * from employee where post_comment is not null;
select name,age,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary in (10000,9000,30000);
select name,age,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary not in (10000,9000,30000);
select name,salary*12 from employee where post='teacher' and name like 'jin%';

强调:where是一种约束条件,mysql会拿着where指定的条件去表中取数据,而having则是在取出数据后进行过滤

单独使用GROUP BY关键字分组
    select post from employee group by post;
    注意:我们按照post字段分组,那么select查询的字段只能是post,想要获取组内的其他相关信息,需要借助函数

GROUP BY关键字和group_concat()函数一起使用
      select post,group_concat(name) from  employee group by post;#按照岗位分组,并查看组内成员名
      select  post,group_concat(name) as emp_members FROM employee group by post;

GROUP BY与聚合函数一起使用
    select post,count(id) as count from employee group by post;#按照岗位分组,并查看每个组有多少人

where约束

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强调:

 

1. 比较运算符:> < >= <= <> !=
2. between 80 and 100 值在10到20之间
3. in(80,90,100) 值是10或20或30
4. like 'egon%'
    pattern可以是%或_,
    %表示任意多字符
    _表示一个字符 
5. 逻辑运算符:在多个条件直接可以使用逻辑运算符 and or not
分组:一般相同的多的话就可以分成一组(一定是有重复的字段)
小练习:

1. 查询岗位名以及岗位包含的所有员工名字
select post,group_concat(name) from employee group by post;

2. 查询岗位名以及各岗位内包含的员工个数
select post,count(id) from employee group by post;

3. 查询公司内男员工和女员工的个数
select sex,count(id) from employee group by sex;

4. 查询岗位名以及各岗位的平均薪资
select post,max(salary) from employee group by post;

5. 查询岗位名以及各岗位的最高薪资
select post,max(salary) from employee group by post;

6. 查询岗位名以及各岗位的最低薪资
select post,min(salary) from employee group by post;

7. 查询男员工与男员工的平均薪资,女员工与女员工的平均薪资
 select sex,avg(salary) from employee group by sex;

(2)group by 分组查询

where字句中可以使用: 

六、关键字的执行优先级(重点)

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重点中的重点:关键字的执行优先级
from
where
group by
having
select
distinct
order by
limit
#1、首先明确一点:分组发生在where之后,即分组是基于where之后得到的记录而进行的

#2、分组指的是:将所有记录按照某个相同字段进行归类,比如针对员工信息表的职位分组,或者按照性别进行分组等

#3、为何要分组呢?
    取每个部门的最高工资
    取每个部门的员工数
    取男人数和女人数

小窍门:‘每’这个字后面的字段,就是我们分组的依据

#4、大前提:
    可以按照任意字段分组,但是分组完毕后,比如group by post,只能查看post字段,如果想查看组内信息,需要借助于聚合函数
#1:单条件查询
    SELECT name FROM employee
        WHERE post='sale';

#2:多条件查询
    SELECT name,salary FROM employee
        WHERE post='teacher' AND salary>10000;

#3:关键字BETWEEN AND
    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary BETWEEN 10000 AND 20000;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary NOT BETWEEN 10000 AND 20000;

#4:关键字IS NULL(判断某个字段是否为NULL不能用等号,需要用IS)
    SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee 
        WHERE post_comment IS NULL;

    SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee 
        WHERE post_comment IS NOT NULL;

    SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee 
        WHERE post_comment=''; 注意''是空字符串,不是null
    ps:
        执行
        update employee set post_comment='' where id=2;
        再用上条查看,就会有结果了

#5:关键字IN集合查询
    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary=3000 OR salary=3500 OR salary=4000 OR salary=9000 ;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary IN (3000,3500,4000,9000) ;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary NOT IN (3000,3500,4000,9000) ;

#6:关键字LIKE模糊查询
    通配符’%’
    SELECT * FROM employee 
            WHERE name LIKE 'eg%';

    通配符’_’
    SELECT * FROM employee 
            WHERE name LIKE 'al__';

 

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View Code

1.找到表:from

 

 

2.拿着where指定的约束条件,去文件/表中取出一条条记录

当执行以下sql语句的时候,是以post字段查询了组中的第一条数据,没有任何意义,因为我们现在想查出当前组的多条记录。

 5、分组查询:group by

3.将取出的一条条记录进行分组group by,如果没有group by,则整体作为一组

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 大前提:可以按照任意字段分组,但分完组后,只能查看分组的那个字段,要想取的组内的其他字段信息,需要借助函数

4.如果有聚合函数,则将组进行聚合

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